A set of standard subroutines that provide access to CAMAC facilities in a variety of computer programming languages is described. The subroutines are specifically intended to be suitable for use with FORTRAN, although they are not restricted to that language. The subroutines have been grouped into three subsets in order to provide different standard levels of implementation. The lowest level requires only two subroutines, but, nevertheless, gives access to most of the facilities that can be found in CAMAC. In higher levels of implementation, subroutines are added that permit procedures to be written in more mnemonic terminology, provide better handling of LAMs, permit procedures to be independent of the type of CAMAC highway used, and provide efficient block-transfer capability.
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Working Group Details
IEEE/IEC International Standard - Criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation for nuclear power generating stations
Established in this standard are criteria for variable selection, performance, design, and qualification of accident monitoring instrumentation for anticipated operational, design basis events and severe accidents.
IEEE FASTBUS Standard Routines
1177-1993 Abstract: Standard software routines for use with the system in IEEE Std 960-1993 are defined. 960-1993 Abstract: Mechanical, signal, electrical, and protocol specifications are given for a modular data bus system, which, while allowing equipment designers a wide choice of solutions, ensure compatibility of all designs that obey the mandatory parts of the specification. This standard applies to systems consisting of modular electronic instrument units that process or transfer data or signals, normally in association with computers or other automatic data processors.
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Semiconductor X-Ray Energy Spectrometers
Test procedures for X-ray spectrometers consisting of a semiconductor radiation detector assembly and signal processing electronics interfaced to a pulse-height analyzer/computer are presented. Energy resolution, spectral distortion, pulse-height linearity, counting rate effects, overload effects, pulse-height stability, and efficiency are covered. Test procedures for pulse-height analyzers and computers are not covered.
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for High-Purity Germanium Crystals for Radiation Detectors
This standard applies to the measurement of bulk properties of high-purity germanium as they relate to fabrication and performance of germanium detectors for gamma rays and x rays. Such germanium is monocrystalline and has a net concentration of fewer than 1011 electrically active impurity center per cm3, usually on the order of 1010 cm-3.
IEEE Standard Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) Histogram Data Interchange Format for Nuclear Spectroscopy
A standard format for data interchange used to transfer pulse height data on magnetic media between laboratories is provided. The terms used in file records are defined. The contents consist only of ASCII characters and can be transmitted over networks and other direct links. Example programs to read data in FORTRAN, BASIC and C are provided.
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Semiconductor Charged-Particle Detectors
This standard applies to semiconductor radiation detectors that are used for the detection and high-resolution spectroscopy of charged particles. The measurement techniques described were selected to be readily available to all manufacturers and users of charged-particle detectors. Some superior techniques are not included because the methods are too complex or require equipment (such as particle accelerators) which may not be readily available. Test procedures for the associated amplifiers and preamplifiers are described in ANSI/IEEE Std 301-1988
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Amplifiers and Preamplifiers used with Detectors of Ionizing Radiation
Procedures are given for testing amplifier and preamplifier systems with linear pulse-shaping networks for use with semiconductor, scintillation, and proportional detectors in the spectroscopy of ionizing radiation. The object is to provide a common language and methodology for users and manufacturers of pulse-amplifier systems. The emphasis in the methods of measurement is to enhance sensitivity and improve accuracy by working around the limitations of the test instruments, particularly oscilloscopes that have only a visual display for readout. A technique is used where possible, thereby reducing basic errors to the inaccuracy of precision resistors.
IEEE Standard Test Procedures and Bases for Geiger-Mueller Counters
Test procedures for Geiger-Mueller counters that are used for the detection of ionizing radiation are presented so that they have the same meaning to both manufacturers and users. Also included is information on bases (i.e., connections) for the counters.
IEEE Standard Test Procedures for Photomultipliers for Scintillation Counting and Glossary for Scintillation Counting Field
Tests for measuring the pulse-height, spurious-pulse, and pulse-timing characteristics of photomultipliers used in scintillation and Cerenkov counters are presented. Five different measurement techniques are described. They are rise-time measurements, fall-time measurements, photocathode transit-time difference measurements, and transit-time spread measurements.
IEEE Standard Modular Instrumentation and Digital Interface System (CAMAC) (Computer Automated Measurement and Control)
This standard is intended to serve as a basis for a range of modular instrumentation capable of interfacing transducers and other devices to digital controllers for data and control. It consists of mechanical standards and signal standards that are sufficient to ensure physical and operational compatibility between units regardless of source. The standard fully specifies a data bus (Dataway) by means of which instruments and other functional modules can communicate with each other, with peripherals, with computers, and with other external controllers.
IEEE Standard Serial Highway Interface System (CAMAC) (Computer Automated Measurement and Control)
A serial highway (SH) system using byte-organized messages and configured as a unidirectional loop, to which are connected a system controller and up to sixty-two CAMAC crate assemblies, is defined. In the primary application, the controlled devices are CAMAC crate assemblies with serial crate controllers that conform to a defined message structure. In other applications, some or all of the controlled devices connected to the SH can be equipment that conforms to a subset of the full specification and is not necessarily constructed in CAMAC format or controlled by CAMAC commands.
IEEE Standard Parallel Highway Interface System (CAMAC) (Computer Automated Measurement and Control)
The CAMAC parallel highway interface system for interconnecting up to seven CAMAC crates (or other devices) and a system controller is defined. In particular, the signals, timing, and logical organization of the connections from crate controllers and parallel highway drivers to the parallel highway through a standard connector are defined. The internal structures of crate controllers and parallel highway drivers, and the physical construction of the parallel highway system, are defined only as they affect compatibility between parts of the system.
IEEE Standard Multiple Controllers in a CAMAC Crate (Computer Automated Measurement and Control)
A method for incorporating more than one source of control into a CAMAC crate is defined. The aim is to provide for the use of auxiliary controllers in order to extend the capabilities and fields of application of the CAMAC modular instrumentation and interface system of ANSI/IEEE Std 583-1982.
IEEE Recommended Practice for Block Transfers in CAMAC Systems (Computer Automated Measurement and Control)
The recommended block-transfer algorithms are discussed, and those given in the basic CAMAC specification are described. These algorithms are well established and are supported by existing hardware. Some new algorithms are then discussed. Compatibility, hardware design, and software considerations are addressed.
IEEE Standard Real-Time BASIC for CAMAC
This standard defines ANSI Standard Real-Time BASIC, in which the declarations and real-time statements are defined for use with CAMAC hardware. It covers real-time capabilities, declarations, parallel activities, CAMAC input and output, the CAMAC Q and X signals, CAMAC LAM handling, message passing, shared data, and bit manipulation. The aim is to achieve maximum compatibility between different implementations of ANSI BASIC for use with CAMAC.